1 buildings for carrying on industrial labor; "they built a large plant to manufacture automobiles" [syn: works, industrial plant]
3 something planted secretly for discovery by another; "the police used a plant to trick the thieves"; "he claimed that the evidence against him was a plant"
4 an actor situated in the audience whose acting is rehearsed but seems spontaneous to the audience
1 put or set (seeds or seedlings) into the ground; "Let's plant flowers in the garden" [syn: set]
2 fix or set securely or deeply; "He planted a knee in the back of his opponent"; "The dentist implanted a tooth in the gum" [syn: implant, engraft, embed, imbed]
3 set up or lay the groundwork for; "establish a new department" [syn: establish, found, constitute, institute]
4 place into a river; "plant fish"
5 place something or someone in a certain position in order to secretly observe or deceive; "Plant a spy in Moscow"; "plant bugs in the dissident's apartment"
6 put firmly in the mind; "Plant a thought in the students' minds" [syn: implant]
Etymology 1From planta, later influenced by French plante.
- An organism that is
not an animal, especially an organism capable of photosynthesis.
Typically a small or herbaceous organism of this kind, rather than
- The garden had a couple of trees, and a cluster of colourful plants around the border.
- An organism of the kingdom Plantae; now specifically, a living organism of the Embryophyta (land plants) or of the Chlorophyta (green algae), a eukaryote that includes double-membraned chloroplasts in its cells containing chlorophyll a and b, or any organism closely related to such an organism.
- In the context of "ecology": Now specifically, a multicellular eukaryote that includes chloroplasts in its cells, which have a cell wall.
- An industrial installation, specifically the apparatus or machinery.
- A factory or other industrial or institutional building or facility.
- An object placed surreptitiously in order to cause suspicion to
fall upon a person.
- That gun's not mine! It's a plant! I've never seen it before!
- A person, placed amongst an audience, whole role is to cause confusion, laughter etc.
- In the context of "snooker": A situation in which the cue ball hits
one of a pair of touching (usually red) balls, in order to pot the
other; a set.
- 2008, Phil Yates, The Times, April 28 2008:
- O’Sullivan risked a plant that went badly astray, splitting the reds.
- 2008, Phil Yates, The Times, April 28 2008:
- Albanian: bimë
- Breton: plant (collective noun)
- Catalan: planta
- Cebuano: tanum
- Chinese: 植物 (zhíwù)
- Croatian: biljka
- Danish: plante
- Dutch: plant
- Esperanto: planto
- Finnish: kasvi
- French: plante
- German: Pflanze
- Guaraní: ka'a
- Hebrew: צמח
- Hindi: पौधा
- Hungarian: növény
- Icelandic: jurt, planta
- Ido: planto
- Indonesian: tumbuh-tumbuhan
- Interlingua: planta
- Italian: pianta
- Japanese: 植物 (しょくぶつ, shokubutsu)
- Korean: 식물 (植物, sikmul)
- Sorani: درهخت, ڕووهک
- Latin: planta
- Lithuanian: augalas
- Lojban: spati
- Polish: roślina
- Portuguese: planta
- Romanian: plantă
- Russian: растение
- Sardinian: pranta
- Serbian: raslina , biljka
- Slovene: rastlina
- Spanish: planta, mata
- Swedish: planta
- Tagalog: halaman
- Tupinambá: ka'a
- Turkish: bitki
- Ukrainian: рослина (roslyna)
industrial apparatus or machinery
factory or industrial facility
- Breton: labouradeg , greanti
- Cebuano: planta
- Chinese: 工廠, 工厂 (gōngchǎng)
- Danish: virksomhed , anlæg , fabrik
- Dutch: fabriek
- Finnish: laitos, tehdas
- French: fabrique, outillage, usine
- German: Fabrik, Werk, Anlage
- Hungarian: gyár, üzem
- Indonesian: pabrik
- Interlingua: installation; fabrica; machineria
- Italian: impianto
- Japanese: 工場 (こうじょう, kōjō)
- Korean: 공장 (工場, gongjang)
- Lithuanian: gamykla , sometimes fabrikas
- Lojban: fanri
- Polish: fabryka, zakład
- Portuguese: fábrica, usina
- Romanian: fabrică, uzină
- Russian: завод, фабрика
- Spanish: maquinaria, fábrica
- Turkish: fabrika, tesis
object placed to incriminate
- Romanian: înscenare
person hidden in audience
- Romanian: interpus
Usage notesThe scientific definition of what organisms should be considered plants changed dramatically during the 20th century. Bacteria, algae, and fungi are no longer considered plants by those who study them. Many textbooks do not reflect the most current thinking on classification.
Etymology 2plantare, later influenced by Old French planter.
- To place (a seed or plant) in soil or other substrate in order that it may live and grow.
- To place (an object,
or sometimes a person), often with the implication of intending
- That gun's not mine! It was planted there by the real murderer!
- To place or set something firmly or with conviction.
- Plant your feet firmly and give the rope a good tug.
place in soil or other substrate in order that it may live and grow
- Arabic: ,
- Breton: plantañ
- Cebuano: tanum
- Chinese: 種, 种 (zhòng); 種稙, 种植(zhòngzhí)
- Danish: så, plante
- Dutch: planten, poten
- Finnish: istuttaa
- French: planter
- German: pflanzen
- Guarani: ñoty
- Hungarian: letelepít, ültet
- Ido: plantacar
- Indonesian: tanam
- Interlingua: plantar
- Italian: piantare
- Japanese: 植える (うえる, ueru)
- Korean: 심다 (simda)
- Sorani: شینکردن, چانکردن, ڕواندن
- Lojban: sombo
- Polish: sadzić , zasadzić
- Portuguese: plantar
- Romanian: a planta
- Russian: сажать (sažát’) , посадить (posadít’)
- Spanish: plantar, sembrar
- Swedish: plantera
- Tupinambá: tym
- Turkish: ekmek
place (an object, or sometimes a person), often with the implication of intending deceit
place or set something firmly or with conviction
- Spanish: plantar, colocar
Nounplant (singular: plentyn)
Plants are a major group of life forms and include familiar organisms such as trees, herbs, bushes, grasses, vines, ferns, mosses, and green algae. About 350,000 species of plants, defined as seed plants, bryophytes, ferns and fern allies, are estimated to exist currently. As of 2004, some 287,655 species had been identified, of which 258,650 are flowering and 18,000 bryophytes (see table below). Green plants, sometimes called metaphytes, obtain most of their energy from sunlight via a process called photosynthesis.
DefinitionAristotle divided all living things between plants (which generally do not move), and animals (which often are mobile to catch their food). In Linnaeus' system, these became the Kingdoms Vegetabilia (later Metaphyta or Plantae) and Animalia (also called Metazoa). Since then, it has become clear that the Plantae as originally defined included several unrelated groups, and the fungi and several groups of algae were removed to new kingdoms. However, these are still often considered plants in many contexts, both technical and popular.
When the name Plantae or plants is applied to a specific taxon, it is usually referring to one of three concepts. From smallest to largest in inclusiveness, these three groupings are:
- Land plants, also known as Embryophyta or Metaphyta. As the narrowest of plant categories, this is further delineated below.
- Green plants - also known as Viridiplantae, Viridiphyta or Chlorobionta - comprise the above Embryophytes, Charophyta (i.e., primitive stoneworts), and Chlorophyta (i.e., green algae such as sea lettuce). It is this clade which is mainly the subject of this article.
- Archaeplastida - also known as Plantae sensu lato, Plastida or Primoplantae - comprises the green plants above, as well as Rhodophyta (red algae) and Glaucophyta (simple glaucophyte algae). As the broadest plant clade, this comprises most of the eukaryotes that eons ago acquired their chloroplasts directly by engulfing cyanobacteria.
Informally, other creatures that carry out photosynthesis are called plants as well, but they do not constitute a formal taxon and represent species that are not closely related to true plants. There are around 375,000 species of plants, and each year more are found and described by science.
Most algae are no longer classified within the Kingdom Plantae. The sister group to the combined embryophytes and charophytes is the other group of green algae (Chlorophyta), and this more inclusive group is collectively referred to as the green plants or Viridiplantae. The Kingdom Plantae is often taken to mean this monophyletic grouping. With a few exceptions among the green algae, all such forms have cell walls containing cellulose, have chloroplasts containing chlorophylls a and b, and store food in the form of starch. They undergo closed mitosis without centrioles, and typically have mitochondria with flat cristae.
The chloroplasts of green plants are surrounded by two membranes, suggesting they originated directly from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria. The same is true of two additional groups of algae: the Rhodophyta (red algae) and Glaucophyta. All three groups together are generally believed to have a common origin, and so are classified together in the taxon Archaeplastida. In contrast, most other algae (e.g. heterokonts, haptophytes, dinoflagellates, and euglenids) have chloroplasts with three or four surrounding membranes. They are not close relatives of the green plants, presumably acquiring chloroplasts separately from ingested or symbiotic green and red algae.
Fungi are no longer considered to be plants, though they were previously included in the plant kingdom. Unlike embryophytes and algae, fungi are not photosynthetic, but are saprotrophs: obtaining food by breaking down and absorbing surrounding materials. Fungi are not plants, but were historically treated as closely related to plants, and were considered to be in the purview of botanists. It has long been recognized that fungi are evolutionarily closer to animals than to plants, but they still are covered more in depth in introductory botany courses and are not necessarily touched upon in introductory zoology courses. Most fungi are formed by microscopic structures called hyphae, which may or may not be divided into cells but contain eukaryotic nuclei. Fruiting bodies, of which mushrooms are most familiar, are the reproductive structures of fungi. They are not related to any of the photosynthetic groups, but are close relatives of animals. Therefore, the fungi are in a kingdom of their own.
DiversityAbout 350,000 species of plants, defined as seed plants, bryophytes, ferns and fern allies, are estimated to exist currently. As of 2004, some 287,655 species had been identified, of which 258,650 are flowering plants, 16,000 bryophytes, 11,000 ferns and 8,000 green algae.
PhylogenyA proposed phylogeny of the Plantae after Kenrick and Crane is as follows, with modification to the Pteridophyta from Smith et al. The Prasinophyceae may be a paraphyletic basal group to all green plants.
EmbryophytesMost familiar are the multicellular land plants, called embryophytes. They include the vascular plants, plants with full systems of leaves, stems, and roots. They also include a few of their close relatives, often called bryophytes, of which mosses and liverworts are the most common.
All of these plants have eukaryotic cells with cell walls composed of cellulose, and most obtain their energy through photosynthesis, using light and carbon dioxide to synthesize food. About three hundred plant species do not photosynthesize but are parasites on other species of photosynthetic plants. Plants are distinguished from green algae, which represent a mode of photosynthetic life similar to the kind modern plants are believed to have evolved from, by having specialized reproductive organs protected by non-reproductive tissues.
Bryophytes first appeared during the early Palaeozoic. They can only survive where moisture is available for significant periods, although some species are desiccation tolerant. Most species of bryophyte remain small throughout their life-cycle. This involves an alternation between two generations: a haploid stage, called the gametophyte, and a diploid stage, called the sporophyte. The sporophyte is short-lived and remains dependent on its parent gametophyte.
Vascular plants first appeared during the Silurian period, and by the Devonian had diversified and spread into many different land environments. They have a number of adaptations that allowed them to overcome the limitations of the bryophytes. These include a cuticle resistant to desiccation, and vascular tissues which transport water throughout the organism. In most the sporophyte acts as a separate individual, while the gametophyte remains small.
The first primitive seed plants, Pteridosperms (seed ferns) and Cordaites, both groups now extinct, appeared in the late Devonian and diversified through the Carboniferous, with further evolution through the Permian and Triassic periods. In these the gametophyte stage is completely reduced, and the sporophyte begins life inside an enclosure called a seed, which develops while on the parent plant, and with fertilisation by means of pollen grains. Whereas other vascular plants, such as ferns, reproduce by means of spores and so need moisture to develop, some seed plants can survive and reproduce in extremely arid conditions.
Early seed plants are referred to as gymnosperms (naked seeds), as the seed embryo is not enclosed in a protective structure at pollination, with the pollen landing directly on the embryo. Four surviving groups remain widespread now, particularly the conifers, which are dominant trees in several biomes. The angiosperms, comprising the flowering plants, were the last major group of plants to appear, emerging from within the gymnosperms during the Jurassic and diversifying rapidly during the Cretaceous. These differ in that the seed embryo (angiosperm) is enclosed, so the pollen has to grow a tube to penetrate the protective seed coat; they are the predominant group of flora in most biomes today.
FossilsPlant fossils include roots, wood, leaves, seeds, fruit, pollen, spores, phytoliths, and amber (the fossilized resin produced by some plants). Fossil land plants are recorded in terrestrial, lacustrine, fluvial and nearshore marine sediments. Pollen, spores and algae (dinoflagellates and acritarchs) are used for dating sedimentary rock sequences. The remains of fossil plants are not as common as fossil animals, although plant fossils are locally abundant in many regions worldwide.
The earliest fossils clearly assignable to Kingdom Plantae are fossil green algae from the Cambrian. These fossils resemble calcified multicellular members of the Dasycladales. Earlier Precambrian fossils are known which resemble single-cell green algae, but definitive identity with that group of algae is uncertain.
The oldest known trace fossils of embryophytes date from the Ordovician, though such fossils are fragmentary. By the Silurian, fossils of whole plants are preserved, including the lycophyte Baragwanathia longifolia. From the Devonian, detailed fossils of rhyniophytes have been found. Early fossils of these ancient plants show the individual cells within the plant tissue. The Devonian period also saw the evolution of what many believe to be the first modern tree, Archaeopteris. This fern-like tree combined a woody trunk with the fronds of a fern, but produced no seeds.
The Coal Measures are a major source of Palaeozoic plant fossils, with many groups of plants in existence at this time. The spoil heaps of coal mines are the best places to collect; coal itself is the remains of fossilised plants, though structural detail of the plant fossils is rarely visible in coal. In the Fossil Forest at Victoria Park in Glasgow, Scotland, the stumps of Lepidodendron trees are found in their original growth positions.
The fossilized remains of conifer and angiosperm roots, stems and branches may be locally abundant in lake and inshore sedimentary rocks from the Mesozoic and Caenozoic eras. Sequoia and its allies, magnolia, oak, and palms are often found.
Petrified wood is common in some parts of the world, and is most frequently found in arid or desert areas where it is more readily exposed by erosion. Petrified wood is often heavily silicified (the organic material replaced by silicon dioxide), and the impregnated tissue is often preserved in fine detail. Such specimens may be cut and polished using lapidary equipment. Fossil forests of petrified wood have been found in all continents.
Fossils of seed ferns such as Glossopteris are widely distributed throughout several continents of the southern hemisphere, a fact that gave support to Alfred Wegener's early ideas regarding Continental drift theory.
GrowthMost of the solid material in a plant is taken from the atmosphere. Through a process known as photosynthesis, plants use the energy in sunlight to convert carbon dioxide from the atmosphere into simple sugars. These sugars are then used as building blocks and form the main structural component of the plant. Plants rely on soil primarily for support and water (in quantitative terms), but also obtain nitrogen, phosphorus and other crucial elemental nutrients. For the majority of plants to grow successfully they also require oxygen in the atmosphere and around their roots for respiration. However, a few specialized vascular plants, such as Mangroves, can grow with their roots in anoxic conditions.
Factors affecting growthThe genotype of a plant affects its growth, for example selected varieties of wheat grow rapidly, maturing within 110 days, whereas others, in the same environmental conditions, grow more slowly and mature within 155 days.
Growth is also determined by environmental factors, such as temperature, available water, available light, and available nutrients in the soil. Any change in the availability of these external conditions will be reflected in the plants growth.
Biotic factors (living organisms) also affect plant growth.
- Plants compete with other plants for space, water, light and nutrients. Plants can be so crowded that no single individual makes normal growth.
Internal distributionVascular plants differ from other plants in that they transport nutrients between different parts through specialized structures, called xylem and phloem. They also have roots for taking up water and minerals. The xylem moves water and minerals from the root to the rest of the plant, and the phloem provides the roots with sugars and other nutrient produced by the leaves.
The photosynthesis conducted by land plants and algae is the ultimate source of energy and organic material in nearly all ecosystems. Photosynthesis radically changed the composition of the early Earth's atmosphere, which as a result is now 21% oxygen. Animals and most other organisms are aerobic, relying on oxygen; those that do not are confined to relatively rare anaerobic environments. Plants are the primary producers in most terrestrial ecosystems and form the basis of the food web in those ecosystems. Many animals rely on plants for shelter as well as oxygen and food.
Land plants are key components of the water cycle and several other biogeochemical cycles. Some plants have coevolved with nitrogen fixing bacteria, making plants an important part of the nitrogen cycle. Plant roots play an essential role in soil development and prevention of soil erosion.
DistributionPlants are distributed worldwide in varying numbers. While they inhabit a multitude of biomes and ecoregions, few can be found beyond the tundras at the northernmost regions of continental shelves. At the southern extremes, plants have adapted tenaciously to the prevailing conditions. (See Antarctic flora.)
Plants are often the dominant physical and structural component of habitats where they occur. Many of the Earth's biomes are named for the type of vegetation because plants are the dominant organisms in those biomes, such as grasslands and forests.
Ecological relationshipsNumerous animals have coevolved with plants. Many animals pollinate flowers in exchange for food in the form of pollen or nectar. Many animals disperse seeds, often by eating fruit and passing the seeds in their feces. Myrmecophytes are plants that have coevolved with ants. The plant provides a home, and sometimes food, for the ants. In exchange, the ants defend the plant from herbivores and sometimes competing plants. Ant wastes provide organic fertilizer.
The majority of plant species have various kinds of fungi associated with their root systems in a kind of mutualistic symbiosis known as mycorrhiza. The fungi help the plants gain water and mineral nutrients from the soil, while the plant gives the fungi carbohydrates manufactured in photosynthesis. Some plants serve as homes for endophytic fungi that protect the plant from herbivores by producing toxins. The fungal endophyte, Neotyphodium coenophialum, in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) does tremendous economic damage to the cattle industry in the U.S.
Various forms of parasitism are also fairly common among plants, from the semi-parasitic mistletoe that merely takes some nutrients from its host, but still has photosynthetic leaves, to the fully parasitic broomrape and toothwort that acquire all their nutrients through connections to the roots of other plants, and so have no chlorophyll. Some plants, known as myco-heterotrophs, parasitize mycorrhizal fungi, and hence act as epiparasites on other plants.
Many plants are epiphytes, meaning they grow on other plants, usually trees, without parasitizing them. Epiphytes may indirectly harm their host plant by intercepting mineral nutrients and light that the host would otherwise receive. The weight of large numbers of epiphytes may break tree limbs. Many orchids, bromeliads, ferns and mosses often grow as epiphytes. Bromeliad epiphytes accumulate water in leaf axils to form phytotelmata, complex aquatic food webs.
A few plants are carnivorous, such as the Venus flytrap and sundew. They trap small animals and digest them to obtain mineral nutrients, especially nitrogen.
ImportanceThe study of plant uses by people is termed economic botany or ethnobotany. They are often used as synonyms but some consider economic botany to focus mainly on uses of modern cultivated plants, while ethnobotany studies uses of indigenous plants by native peoples. Human cultivation of plants is part of agriculture, which is the basis of human civilization. Plant agriculture is subdivided into agronomy, horticulture and forestry.
FoodVirtually all human nutrition depends on land plants directly or indirectly. Much of human nutrition depends on cereals, especially maize or corn, wheat and rice or other staple crops such as potato, cassava, and legumes. Other parts from plants that are eaten include fruits, vegetables, nuts, herbs, spices and edible flowers. Beverages from plants include coffee, tea, wine, beer and alcohol. Sugar is obtained mainly from sugar cane and sugar beet. Cooking oils and margarine come from corn, soybean, canola, safflower, sunflower, olive and others. Food additives include gum arabic, guar gum, locust bean gum, starch and pectin.
Nonfood productsWood is used for buildings, furniture, paper, cardboard, musical instruments and sports equipment. Cloth is often made from cotton, flax or synthetic fibers derived from cellulose, such as rayon and acetate. Renewable fuels from plants include firewood, peat and many other biofuels. Coal and petroleum are fossil fuels derived from plants. Medicines derived from plants include aspirin, taxol, morphine, quinine, reserpine, colchicine, digitalis and vincristine. There are hundreds of herbal supplements such as ginkgo, Echinacea, feverfew, and Saint John's wort. Pesticides derived from plants include nicotine, rotenone, strychnine and pyrethrins. Drugs obtained from plants include opium, cocaine and marijuana. Poisons from plants include ricin, hemlock and curare. Plants are the source of many natural products such as fibers, essential oils, dyes, pigments, waxes, tannins, latex, gums, resins, alkaloids, amber and cork. Products derived from plants include soaps, paints, shampoos, perfumes, cosmetics, turpentine, rubber, varnish, lubricants, linoleum, plastics, inks, chewing gum and hemp rope. Plants are also a primary source of basic chemicals for the industrial synthesis of a vast array of organic chemicals. These chemicals are used in a vast variety of studies and experiments.
Aesthetic usesThousands of plant species are cultivated to beautify the human environment as well as to provide shade, modify temperatures, reduce windspeed, abate noise, provide privacy and prevent soil erosion. People use cut flowers, dried flowers and house plants indoors. Outdoors, they use lawngrasses, shade trees, ornamental trees, shrubs, vines, herbaceous perennials and bedding plants. Images of plants are often used in art, architecture, humor, language and photography and on textiles, money, stamps, flags and coats of arms. Living plant art forms include topiary, bonsai, ikebana and espalier. Ornamental plants have sometimes changed the course of history, as in tulipomania. Plants are the basis of a multi-billion dollar per year tourism industry which includes travel to arboretums, botanical gardens, historic gardens, national parks, tulip festivals, rainforests, forests with colorful autumn leaves and the National Cherry Blossom Festival. Venus flytrap, sensitive plant and resurrection plant are examples of plants sold as novelties.
Scientific and cultural usesTree rings are an important method of dating in archeology and serve as a record of past climates. Basic biological research has often been done with plants, such as the pea plants used to derive Gregor Mendel's laws of genetics. Space stations or space colonies may one day rely on plants for life support. Plants are used as national and state emblems, including state trees and state flowers. Ancient trees are revered and many are famous. Numerous world records are held by plants. Plants are often used as memorials, gifts and to mark special occasions such as births, deaths, weddings and holidays. Plants figure prominently in mythology, religion and literature. The field of ethnobotany studies plant use by indigenous cultures which helps to conserve endangered species as well as discover new medicinal plants. Gardening is the most popular leisure activity in the U.S. Working with plants or horticulture therapy is beneficial for rehabilitating people with disabilities. Certain plants contain psychotropic chemicals which are extracted and ingested, including tobacco, cannabis (marijuana), and opium.
Negative effectsWeeds are plants that grow where people do not want them. People have spread plants beyond their native ranges and some of these introduced plants become invasive, damaging existing ecosystems by displacing native species. Invasive plants cause billions of dollars in crop losses annually by displacing crop plants, they increase the cost of production and the use of chemical means to control them affects the environment.
Plants may cause harm to people. Plants that produce windblown pollen invoke allergic reactions in people who suffer from hay fever. A wide variety of plants are poisonous. Several plants cause skin irritations when touched, such as poison ivy. Certain plants contain psychotropic chemicals, which are extracted and ingested or smoked, including tobacco, cannabis (marijuana), cocaine and opium, causing damage to health or even death. Both illegal and legal drugs derived from plants have negative effects on the economy, affecting worker productivity and law enforcement costs. Some plants cause allergic reactions in people and animals when ingested, while other plants cause food intolerances that negatively affect health.
- Evolutionary history of plants
- List of poisonous plants
- Plant cell
- Plant defense against herbivory
- Plant perception (paranormal)
- Plant perception (physiology)
- Rapid plant movement
Further reading* Evans, L. T. (1998). Feeding the Ten Billion - Plants and Population Growth. Cambridge University Press. Paperback, 247 pages. ISBN 0-521-64685-5.
- Kenrick, Paul & Crane, Peter R. (1997). The Origin and Early Diversification of Land Plants: A Cladistic Study. Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution Press. ISBN 1-56098-730-8.
- Raven, Peter H., Evert, Ray F., & Eichhorn, Susan E. (2005). Biology of Plants (7th ed.). New York: W. H. Freeman and Company. ISBN 0-7167-1007-2.
- Taylor, Thomas N. & Taylor, Edith L. (1993). The Biology and Evolution of Fossil Plants. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-651589-4.
- Trewavas, A. (2003). Aspects of Plant Intelligence, Annals of Botany 92: 1-20.
- Prance, G. T. (2001). Discovering the Plant World. Taxon 50: 345-359.
- International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) Species Survival Commission (2004). IUCN Red List of Threatened Species http://www.redlist.org.
External linkssisterlinks Plant
Botanical and vegetation databases
- e-Floras (Flora of China, Flora of North America and others)
- PlantFiles - 150,000 plants
- Chilean plants at Chilebosque
- Flora Europaea
- FloraWeb - Flora of Central Europe
- Flora of North America
- Native Plant Information Network
- United States Department of Agriculture
- List of Japanese Wild Plants Online
- Meet the Plants-National Tropical Botanical Garden
- African Plants Initiative database
plant in Afrikaans: Plant
plant in Tosk Albanian: Pflanzen
plant in Arabic: نبات
plant in Aragonese: Planta
plant in Franco-Provençal: Planta
plant in Asturian: Plantae
plant in Aymara: Ali
plant in Bengali: উদ্ভিদ
plant in Min Nan: Si̍t-bu̍t
plant in Bosnian: Biljke
plant in Breton: Plant
plant in Bulgarian: Растения
plant in Catalan: Planta
plant in Czech: Rostliny
plant in Welsh: Planhigyn
plant in Danish: Plante
plant in German: Pflanzen
plant in Estonian: Taimed
plant in Modern Greek (1453-): Φυτό
plant in Spanish: Plantae
plant in Esperanto: Vegetalo
plant in Basque: Landare
plant in French: Plante
plant in Friulian: Plantis
plant in Irish: Planda
plant in Galician: Planta
plant in Classical Chinese: 植物
plant in Korean: 식물
plant in Croatian: Biljke
plant in Ido: Planto
plant in Indonesian: Tumbuhan
plant in Interlingua (International Auxiliary Language Association): Plantae
plant in Inuktitut: ᐱᕈᖅᑐᖅ/piruqtuq
plant in Ossetian: Зайæгой
plant in Icelandic: Jurt
plant in Italian: Plantae
plant in Hebrew: צומח
plant in Georgian: მცენარეები
plant in Cornish: Plans
plant in Swahili (macrolanguage): Mmea
plant in Haitian: Plant
plant in Latin: Planta
plant in Latvian: Augi
plant in Luxembourgish: Planzeräich
plant in Lithuanian: Augalai
plant in Ligurian: Plantae
plant in Lingala: Etɔɛlɛ
plant in Hungarian: Növények
plant in Macedonian: Растенија
plant in Malay (macrolanguage): Tumbuhan
plant in Dutch: Planten
plant in Japanese: 植物
plant in Norwegian: Planter
plant in Norwegian Nynorsk: Plante
plant in Narom: Pliante
plant in Occitan (post 1500): Plantae
plant in Low German: Planten
plant in Polish: Rośliny
plant in Portuguese: Plantae
plant in Romanian: Regn Plantae
plant in Quechua: Yura
plant in Russian: Растения
plant in Albanian: Bimët
plant in Sicilian: Plantae
plant in Simple English: Plant
plant in Slovak: Rastliny
plant in Slovenian: Rastline
plant in Serbian: Биљке
plant in Serbo-Croatian: Biljka
plant in Saterfriesisch: Plonten
plant in Finnish: Kasvi
plant in Swedish: Växt
plant in Tagalog: Halaman
plant in Tamil: தாவரம்
plant in Tarantino: Regnum Plantae
plant in Telugu: మొక్క
plant in Thai: พืช
plant in Vietnamese: Thực vật
plant in Tonga (Tonga Islands): ʻakau
plant in Turkish: Bitkiler
plant in Ukrainian: Рослини
plant in Urdu: نباتات
plant in Yiddish: פלאנץ
plant in Contenese: 植物
plant in Samogitian: Augalā
plant in Chinese: 植物
accouterments, adulterate, agent provocateur, amphibian, angiosperm, annual, apparatus, appliances, appointments, appurtenances, aquatic plant, armament, armory, arsenal, assembly line, assembly plant, assign, atomic energy plant, base, bed, biennial, bindery, boatyard, boilery, bookbindery, bosom, bottle up, brewery, brickyard, broadcast, build, build in, bury, bush, cache, cannery, capper, clawed, colonize, come-on man, conceal, confirm, conveniences, cook, cosmopolite, cover, creamery, cutting, dairy, deciduous plant, decoy, deep-dye, defense plant, define, denizen, deposit, dibble, dicot, dicotyledon, disseminate, distillery, dockyard, doctor, drill, duffel, dust, embed, embosom, empeople, engraft, engrave, entomb, entrench, ephemeral, equipage, equipment, establish, etch, evergreen, exotic, facilities, facility, factory, factory belt, factory district, fake, feeder plant, file and forget, fittings, fix, fixtures, flour mill, flower, flowering plant, footed, forest, found, foundry, fungus, furnishings, furniture, gametophyte, gear, ground, gymnosperm, herb, hide, hide away, hoofed, hydrophyte, impact, impedimenta, implant, impress, imprint, industrial park, industrial zone, infix, informant, informer, ingrain, inhabit, inhume, inject, inscribe, inseminate, insinuate, install, installations, inter, introduce, invest, jam, juggle, keep hidden, keep secret, kit, lay away, lay the foundation, load, lock up, lodge, machinery, main plant, manipulate, manufactory, manufacturing plant, manufacturing quarter, materiel, mill, mint, monocot, monocotyl, munition, munitions, munitions plant, occult, oil refinery, outfit, pack, packing house, paraphernalia, pedal, people, perennial, pitch, place, plantar, plumbing, polycot, polycotyl, polycotyledon, populate, position, pot, pottery, power plant, print, production line, push-button plant, put, put away, put in, put up, refinery, reforest, reset, retimber, retouch, rig, rigging, root, salt, sawmill, scatter, scatter seed, screen, seal up, seat, secret agent, secrete, seed, seed down, seed plant, seedling, seminate, set, set in, set out, set up, settle, settle in, shill, shipyard, shop, shrub, situate, sophisticate, sow, sow broadcast, spermatophyte, sporophyte, spy, stack, stamp, stash, station, stereotype, stock-in-trade, stool pigeon, stoolie, store away, stow away, subassembly plant, sugar refinery, tackle, taloned, tamper with, tannery, thallophyte, things, toed, tomb, transplant, tree, triennial, ungulate, utensils, vascular plant, vegetable, vest, vine, wedge, weed, winery, works, yard, yards